Citing sources in the text

Direct citation

A text or phrase by another author or the same author should be reproduced exactly. In the text you should indicate the author, the year and the specific page, or paragraph number in material without pages, and in the references you should include the complete reference. For citations of less than 40 words, use double quotation marks and incorporate it into the paragraph. See the examples below:

If the citation appears in the middle of a sentence, you should use double quotation marks and include the year in parentheses.

For March (2007), EGOS was conceived “[…] as a kind of intellectual social movement within organizations scholarship, defending, developing and extending a particular point of view and producing, augmenting and proclaiming European resistance […]” (p. 10) to the hegemony of North American scholars.

If the citation appears at the end of a sentence, then cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks.

The analysis of empowerment involves, therefore, “exploring how the different catalysts cause empowerment as well as changes in empowerment capacity at individual and community levels” (Corbett & Keller, 2005, p. 95).

For a citation of 40 words or more, you should present it in a distinct paragraph, with a left indent of 1.3 cm, no quotation marks, and 1.5 line spacing. In cases with paragraphs within the citation, you should use a left indent of 1.3 cm for the first line of each paragraph. At the end of the citation you should indicate the source and the page number in parentheses after the final period. See the example below:

Today, the market tends to become the shaping force of society at large, and the peculiar type of organization that meets its requirements has assumed the character of a paradigm for organizing human existence at large. In such circumstances, the market pattern of thinking and language tends to become equivalent to patterns of thinking and language at large; this is the environment of cognitive politics. Established organizational scholarship is uncritical or unaware of these circumstances, and thus is itself a manifestation of the success of cognitive politics. (Guerreiro Ramos, 1989, p. 92)

If the source is cited in the sentence which introduces the citation (for example, “Em 1989, Guerreiro Ramos afirmou que...”), you should just indicate the page number at the end of the citation.


Direct citation from internet material without pages

Direct citations from electronic material should be cited indicating the author, the year and the page numbers in parentheses. Because many electronic sources do not have pages, include the paragraph number if they are numbered. Use the abbreviation “para.” See the example:

To George and Scerri (2007), “the alternative source for legal information is provided by the free access providers” (para. 7).

If the page numbers or paragraph numbers are available, indicate the title and the paragraph number at the end of the citation in parentheses.

Diniz (2014) afirma que a RAE “tem investido no processo de internacionalização e isto inclui: a chamada e publicação de artigos e a participação de pesquisadores estrangeiros em seu comitê editorial” (Internacionalização da RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, para. 1).

When the titles are too long to be cited in their entirety, you should use the title in quotation marks after the citation, enclosing everything in parentheses.

The alternative source for legal information is provided by the free access providers (Mowbary, Greenleaf, Chung, & Autin, 2007, “Improving stability and performance”, para. 7).

Attention: You should use an ellipsis to indicate text that has been left out. For example:

“legitimacy is not a commodity to be possessed or exchanged but a condition reflecting cultural alignment . . .” (Scott, 1995, p. 45).

Works by a single author

The author-date system suggests that the author’s last name (you shouldn’t include suffixes like Jr.) and year be inserted in the text.

Segundo Cooke (2003), assim, aquilo que é considerado historiografia contribui para a legitimação das instituições, práticas e corpos de conhecimento contemporâneos.

Nesse campo emergente, defende-se, ainda, que estudos históricos dizem respeito ao presente e ao passado, concomitantemente (Cooke, 2003).


Papers by multiple authors

In papers by two authors you should always cite the two authors in the text. For three, four or five authors, you should indicate the last name of all the authors in the first citation; for subsequent citations include the first author followed by et al. (no italics).

Pozzebon, Diniz, and Jayo (2009) have presented a conceptual framework [First citation in the text]

Pozzebon et al. (2009) have presented a conceptual framework [Subsequent citations]


Note: When citing a work in the text you should use “and” before the last surname. For citations in parentheses, in tables, in figure headings and in the list of references, use “&.”

Gomes and Novaes (2006) reportam que os benefícios são aproveitados por todos os acionistas (Grossman & Hart, 1980)

For works with six authors or more, you should indicate the last name of the first author followed by et al. (without italics) and the year in the first citation as well as the subsequent ones.

Entity as an author

Entities that act as authors (corporations, associations, governmental bodies, etc.) should be cited in their entirety wherever they appear in the text. For long and difficult names, when an abbreviation is understandable, you can use it beginning with the second citation.

Authors with the same last name

In the case of publications by two or more main authors with the same last name, you should indicate the initials of the first author in all the citations of the text, even if the year of the publications is distinct.


Lee, H. (2002). Aligning supply chain strategies with product uncertainties. California Management Review, 44(3), 105-119.

Lee, P., Yeung, A., & Edwin Cheng, T. (2009). Supplier alliances and environmental uncertainty: An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics, 120(1), 190-204.


According to studies by H. Lee (2002) and P. Lee, Yeung, and Edwin Cheng (2009).


Two or more works within the same parentheses

They should be in the same order as they appear in the list of references. Citations of works in press should be included at the end.

efeitos do desenvolvimento econômico (Puri, 2006, 2007)

For citations by the same author(s) published in the same year, use the suffixes a, b, c and so on after the year.

conforme estudos (Diniz, 2014a, 2014b)

Two or more works by different authors, when cited within parentheses, should be presented in alphabetic order

Inúmeros estudos (Barros & Carrieri, 2015; Taupin, 2015)


Secondary sources

Secondary sources should be included in the list of references and in the text; cite the primary source first and then the secondary source.

Em consonância, uma pesquisa com dados simulados feita por Zwick e Velicer (1986, como citado em Laros e Puente-Palacios, 2004).


Citations in specific parts of a source

For citations of specific parts of a source, you should indicate the page, the chapter, the figure, the table or the equation in the appropriate part of the text.

(Fleury & Fleury, 2011, capítulo 5)

(Alcadipani, 2005, p. 29)


Citations of text within parentheses

You should use a comma, instead of brackets, to separate the date.

(veja Figura 1 de Miotto & Parente, 2015)


Examples of citations in the text

Exhibit 1 presents examples of citations:

Exhibit 1
Basic citation styles

Citation type

First citation in the text

Subsequent citations in the text

Between parentheses format, first citation in the text 

Between parentheses format, subsequent citations in the text

Work by one author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007) 

(Walker, 2007) 

Work by two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)  

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Work by three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)  

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

Work by four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)   

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

Work by five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008) 

Walker et al. (2008) 

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

Work by six or more authors

Wasserstein et al. (2005)  

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

Entities (identified by abbreviations) as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)  

NIMH (2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

Entities (without abbreviations) as authors

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

Retrieved from the “Publication Manual of the APA,” by G. R. VandenBos et al. (Eds), 2012, p. 205.


28/07/2016 - 13:00



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